The Jewish Primer, by Shmuel Himelstein. Linen should not be dried too much by tumble drying, and it is much easier to iron when damp. [41] Conversely, some brands such as 100% Capri specially treat the linen to look like denim.[42]. In addition, flax thread is not elastic, and therefore it is difficult to weave without breaking threads. The harvested flax is then left in bundles in the field for a few weeks. One of the oldest textile fibers, linen fragments have been found in prehistoric lake dwellings and ancient Egyptian mummy wraps. Excellent strength gains strength when wet, Hydrophilic: absorbs water and dries quickly, Withstands very high temperatures when washing and ironing, Unique texture from the thick-and-thin pattern of the fibers, Interiors: tablecloths, napkins, wallpaper, Linen has been used for clothing for at least ten thousand years, Similar to cotton in its properties (both are natural, cellulosic fibers), Linen fibers have a silky luster and a cool feel, Fibers are in the stem of a plant (therefore called a “bast” fiber), Long fibers from 6 to 20 inches make linen even smoother than cotton, Conducts heat away from the body better than cotton, Linen is a bast fiber from the flax plant, The fibers are harvested primarily by hand. The flax plant (Linum usitatissimum) provides the fiber that is spun into linen. Flax is the oldest fiber on record, first grown by the Egyptians having along the banks of the Nile. It was also worn as clothing on a daily basis; white linen was worn because of the extreme heat. After retting, the stalks are ready for scutching, which takes place between August and December. Linen is preferred to cotton for its strength, durability and archival integrity. The flax plants we use are grown in Belgium and require little or no irrigation, pesticides or fertilizers. The linen industry was increasingly critical in the economies of Europe[28][29] in the 18th and 19th centuries. The site is intended for all spectrum of users to learn and share the textile knowledge from a single platform. 5263 bast fibres from the core and converting these fibres into individual fibres. [7][8], Fragments of straw, seeds, fibers, yarns, and various types of fabrics, including linen samples, dating to about 8,000 BC have been found in Swiss lake dwellings. It is also etymologically related to a number of other terms, including lining, because linen was often used to create an inner layer for clothing,[4] and lingerie, from French, which originally denoted underwear made of linen. Bast fibers are the fibrous part of the plant just below the bark. Garments made of linen are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot and humid weather. Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. [34] First-century Romano-Jewish historian Josephus suggested that the reason for the prohibition was to keep the laity from wearing the official garb of the priests,[35][full citation needed][36] while medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher Maimonides thought that the reason was that heathen priests wore such mixed garments. It has a long staple (individual fiber length) relative to cotton and other natural fibers.[39]. Linen's poor elasticity means that it easily wrinkles. Linen is the best known of the bast fibers and is derived from the flax plant, which is harvested when it turns light brown. The Lower Rhine was a center of linen making in the Middle Ages. The term “linen” is often misused, being applied to fabrics that simply look like linen, or being used as a general term for sheets, towels, and tablecloths. This is the number of 840 yard lengths in a pound. Flax fibers can usually be identified by their “nodes” which add to the flexibility and texture of the fabric. Flax fibers vary in length from about 25 to 150 mm (1 to 6 in) and average 12–16 micrometers in diameter. These fibers are annually renewable crops that come off of the stalks rather than the leaves and grow in 90 to 100 days. [43] United States currency paper is made from 25% linen and 75% cotton.[44]. [14] Plutarch wrote that the priests of Isis also wore linen because of its purity. Linen fibres, like other bast fibres, are obtained from the phloem, or inner bark (or skin) of a plant. In order to restore cellulose fibers from the plant, the wooden trunk and the inner pith (pectin), which binds the fibers together in a clump, must be eliminated away. Linen shares many of the advantages of cotton. The word linen comes from the Latin name for flax. Linen is a bast fiber, meaning it is obtained from the stem of a plant – in this case, the flax plant. Now that the fibers are loosened, the next step is scutching – breaking and beating the flax to remove the woody stalk and bark. This wear can show up in collars, hems, and any area that is iron creased during laundering. The quality of the finished linen product is often dependent upon growing conditions and harvesting techniques. It is a bast fiber, which means it comes from the stem of a plant. Specimens of linen garments worn by historical figures have survived. [32], In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, linen was very significant to Russia and its economy. However, the very finest linen has very consistent diameter threads, with no slubs at all. All Rights Reserved. Linen fibers are six to twenty inches long. Linen is strong, absorbent and dries more quickly than cotton. [12] The Sumerian poem of the courtship of Inanna mentions flax and linen.[13]. High-quality linen fabrics are now produced in the United States for the upholstery market and in Belgium. In the United States cotton is popularly used instead, as linen is many times more expensive there, restricting its use to professional painters. [33], In Judaism, the only law concerning which fabrics may be interwoven together in clothing concerns the mixture of linen and wool, called shaatnez; it is restricted in Deuteronomy 22:11 "Thou shalt not wear a mingled stuff, wool and linen together" and Leviticus 19:19, "...neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together." Some of these fabrics, woven from hand-spun yarns, were very fine for their day, but are coarse compared with modern linen. Linen is especially popular for suits worn in tropical climates. [5], People in various parts of the world began weaving linen at least several thousand years ago. View reliable Bast Fiber Fabric manufacturers on Made-in-China.com. Linen is a flax-based textile that is predominantly used for homeware applications. The cross-section of the linen fiber is made up of irregular polygonal shapes which contribute to the coarse texture of the fabric.[45]. Today, flax is a prestige fiber as a result of its limited production and relatively high cost. What an interesting bit of history! Warping Systems and Selvedges and it’s types, Industrial enzymes in textile production and application, An exclusive information portal on textiles. There are two varieties: shorter tow fibers used for coarser fabrics and longer line fibers used for finer fabrics. Flax fibers vary in length from about 25 to 150 mm (1 to 6 in) and average 12–16 micrometers in diameter. (3) The metric unit, Nm, is more commonly used in continental Europe. Dictionary.com. [48], This article is about the textile. Publisher - a knowledge-base repository of textile articles. Linen is also used extensively by artisan bakers. Linen is bast fiber. In the 18th century and beyond, the linen industry was important in the economies of several countries in Europe as well as the American colonies. However, constant creasing in the same place in sharp folds will tend to break the linen threads. Susana K. September 30, 2011 - 12:09 pm . [37][full citation needed] Others explain that it is because God often forbids mixtures of disparate kinds, not designed by God to be compatible in a certain way, with mixing animal and vegetable fibers being similar to having two different types of plowing animals yoked together; also, such commands serve both a practical as well as allegorical purpose, perhaps here preventing a priestly garment that would cause discomfort (or excessive sweat) in a hot climate. Natural retting methods take place in tanks and pools, or directly in the fields. "Bast fibers are typically coarse natural fibers, meaning they aren't going to be super soft initially," says Sarah Wang, the head of research and development with Tricol-Everplush. Thus linen is considerably more expensive to manufacture than cotton. There are also chemical retting methods; these are faster, but are typically more harmful to the environment and to the fibers themselves. Garments made of linen are desirable in hot and humid climates. It is strong yet comfortable to wear in warm weather. Classifications & Analysis of Textiles: A Handbook by Karen L. LaBat, Ph.D. and Carol J. Salusso, Ph.A. Reply to comment. It can withstand high temperatures, and has only moderate initial shrinkage.[45]. Jamieson, Fausset, Brown commentary, Lv. Bast Fiber. Hemp takes dye beautifully. © 2021 - Textile School. The stem consists essentially of a central woody core and a surrounding cortex which contains the flax or bast fibers. Many products can be made with linen: aprons, bags, towels (swimming, bath, beach, body and wash towels), napkins, bed linens, tablecloths, runners, chair covers, and men's and women's wear. [24], Linen was also an important product in the American colonies, where it was brought over with the first settlers and became the most commonly used fabric and a valuable asset for colonial households. Linen is a bast fiber. Hemp and linen are both bast fibers, and they are processed in much the same way. This is a process which uses bacteria to decompose the pectin that binds the fibers together. For other uses, see. There is a long history of the production of linen in Ireland. This is particularly important for hemp, whose fruits are used as drugs … Textiles in a linen weave texture, even when made of cotton, hemp, or other non-flax fibers, are also loosely referred to as "linen". It has been used for several thousand years in China. Linen fabric is made from the cellulose fibers that grow inside of the stalks of the flax plant, or Linum usitatissimum, one of the oldest cultivated plants in human history. Linen is relatively easy to take care of, since it resists dirt and stains, has no lint or pilling tendency, and can be dry-cleaned, machine-washed, or steamed. Linen is also mentioned in the Bible in Proverbs 31, a passage describing a noble wife. Cotton, bamboo, and human-extruded plant fibers, such as lyocell, are not bast fibers. Online Etymology Dictionary. Wool fiber – Basics, Characteristics, & Properties, The Importance of Sustainability in Denim, need linen natural color with different process like linen flex,slub,checks, Need natural color in linen with different process like linen flex , slub ,linen checks just in natural color.contact _9320389908. In recent years bulk linen production has moved to Eastern Europe and China, but high-quality fabrics are still confined to niche producers in Ireland, Italy and Belgium, and also in countries including Poland, Austria, France, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, Britain and Kochi in India. Linen fiber is a cellulose fiber derived from the flax plant trunk. Linen is laborious to manufacture, but the fiber is very strong, absorbent and dries faster than cotton. In the past, slubs were traditionally considered to be defects, and were associated with low-quality linen. [27] Although the linen industry was already established in Ulster, Louis Crommelin found scope for improvement in weaving, and his efforts were so successful that he was appointed by the Government to develop the industry over a much wider range than the small confines of Lisburn and its surroundings. Learn how your comment data is processed. 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